Theodore Roosevelt


October 27. Born at 28 East 20th Street, New York City, the second child of Theodore ("Thee" or "Greatheart") and Martha ("Mittie") Bulloch Roosevelt. In all, there would be four children: Anna ("Bamie" or "Bye"), Theodore ("Teedie"), Elliott ("Ellie") and Corinne ("Coney").


Watches Abraham Lincoln's funeral cortege from an upstairs window of his grandfather's house on Union Square, New York City. With him are his younger brother, Elliott, and a friend named Edith Kermit Carow.


Enters Harvard University.


February 9. Death of his father because of stomach cancer at the family's new home at 6 West 57th Street.


June 30. Graduates from Harvard University, magna cum laude, member Phi Beta Kappa.

October 27. Marries Alice Hathaway Lee (born July 29, 1861, Boston, Mass.).

Joins Republican Party.


October. Enters Columbia University to study Law before leaving school to enter public service in 1882, without graduating or becoming a lawyer.


Publishes The Naval War of 1812, written partly while he was in college. It set the standard for studies on naval strategy and was required reading at Annapolis for many years.

Becomes the youngest man elected to the New York State Assembly by a margin of 3,490 votes to 1,989.

"I put myself in the way of things happening; and they happened."..."During the three years’ service in the Legislature I worked on a very simple philosophy of government. It was that personal character and initiative are the prime requisites in political and social life."

August 1. Joins the National Guard. Commissioned a second lieutenant in B Company of New York's Eighth Regiment. Would be promoted to captain the following year.


Re-elected by the widest margin of any legislator in New York (by a two-to-one majority). Becomes Minority Leader. Is taken on a tour of New York City tenements by Samuel Gompers and is horrified by the conditions he witnesses. Works to pass legislation to ease conditions.

Establishes himself as a ranchman in western Dakota on his first hunting trip there, with two cattle ranches (The Maltese Cross and Elkhorn) near Medora, N.D.


February 12. Birth of his first child, Alice Lee Roosevelt, at 6 West 57th Street.

February 14. Death of his mother from typhoid fever and his wife, Alice, due to Bright's disease (a chronic kidney infection). Both died within hours of each other in the same house.

"It was a grim and an evil fate, but I never have believed it did any good to flinch or yield for any blow, nor does it lighten the blow to cease from working." (Private letter, March 1884)

March. Signs a contract with the firm of Joseph Wood & Sons of Lawrence, Long Island, to build a home in Oyster Bay at the insistence of his sister, Bamie, who convinced him his daughter would need a home. He had originally planned the home with his wife, Alice, and was planning to name it Leeholm in honor of her family name. The house, completed in 1885, would later be named Sagamore Hill in honor of Sagamore Mohannis, the Indian chief who used the hill as a meeting place and signed his people's rights to the land over to the settlers in the 1660s.

April. As chairman of the Committee on Cities, presents report that results in vital changes in the Charter of New York City.

June. Delegate to the Republican National Convention.


Ranchman in the badlands of the Dakota Territory.

"It was still the Wild West in those days, the Far West of Owen Wister's stories, and Frederic Remington's drawings, the soldier and the cowpuncher. The land of the West has gone now, 'gone, gone with the lost Atlantis,' gone to the isle of ghosts and strange dead memories...In that land we led a hardy life. Ours was the glory of work and the joy of living."


Publishes Hunting Trips of a Ranchman.


November 2. Candidate for Mayor of New York. Defeated by Abram S. Hewitt, the son-in-law of Peter Cooper. Hewitt's New York City home would later become the Cooper-Hewitt Museum.

"But anyway, I had a bully time."

December 2. Marries Edith Kermit Carow (born Aug. 6, 1861, in Norwich, Conn.) in London.


Publishes Life of Thomas Hart Benton.

September 13. Birth of his son, Theodore Roosevelt Jr., at Sagamore Hill.


Publishes Life of Gouverneur Morris.

Publishes Ranch Life and the Hunting Trail.

Publishes Essays in Practical Politics.


October 10. Birth of his son, Kermit Roosevelt, at Sagamore Hill.

Publishes first two volumes of The Winning of the West; succeeding volumes were published in 1894 and 1896.

May 7. Appointed U.S. Civil Service Commissioner in Washington, D.C. Serves until May 5, 1895.

"The opposition to reform is generally well led by skilled parliamentarians, and they fight with the vindictiveness natural to men who see a chance of striking at the institution which has baffled their greed. These men have a gift at office-mongering, just as other men have a peculiar knack at picking pockets; and they are joined by all the honest dull men, who vote wrong out of pure ignorance, and by a very few sincere and intelligent, but wholly misguided people."


Publishes History of New York, a history of New York City.

August 13. Birth of his daughter, Ethel Carow Roosevelt, at Sagamore Hill.


Publishes The Wilderness Hunter.


April 10. Birth of his son, Archibald Bulloch Roosevelt, in Washington, D.C.

August 14. Death of his brother, Elliott Roosevelt.


Publishes, in collaboration with Henry Cabot Lodge, Hero Tales from American History.

May 6. Resigns as Civil Service commissioner to become president of the Police Commission of the City of New York. Receives national press attention for his reforms, including "midnight rambles" in search of policemen not at their posts. Orders that all police officers must report for target practice, thus establishing the foundation of the Police Academy, one of the first in the country.

"There is nothing of the purple in it. It is as grimy as all work for municipal reform over here must be for some decades to come; and is inconceivably arduous, disheartening, and irritating, beyond almost all other work of the kind...It is not work to be done in a rose-water basis."


Publishes American Ideals.

April 19. Appointed assistant secretary of the Navy by President William McKinley.

"The shots that hit are the shots that count."

November 19. Birth of his son, Quentin Roosevelt, in Washington, D.C.


May 6. Resigns as assistant secretary of the Navy to become a lieutenant colonel of the 1st U.S. Volunteer Cavalry Regiment (the "Rough Riders"). Is later promoted to colonel of the regiment before the Battle of San Juan Heights. Serves with the Rough Riders May 15-Sept. 16, 1898.

"A man's usefulness depends upon his living up to his ideals in so far as he can. Now I have consistently preached what our opponents are pleased to call 'Jingo Doctrines' for a good many years. One of the commonest taunts directed at men like myself is that we are armchair and parlor Jingos who wish to see others do what we only advocate doing. I care very little for such a taunt, except as it affects my uselessness; but I cannot afford to disregard that fact that my power for good, whatever it may be, would be gone if I didn't try to live up to the doctrines I have to preach."

June 24. Baptism of fire at Las Guasimas.

July 1. Battle of San Juan Heights. Is later nominated for, but denied, the Congressional Medal of Honor.

"As for the political effect of my actions, in the first place, I never can get on in politics, and in the second, I would rather have led that charge and earned my colonelcy than served three terms in the U.S. Senate. It makes me feel as though I could now leave something to my children which will serve as an apology for my having existed."

August 14. The Rough Riders land at Montauk, Long Island, to begin a six-week quarantine.

September 27. Nominated by the Republican Party for governor of New York State.

October 5. Opening of campaign at Carnegie Music Hall. Speech on The Duties of a Great Nation.

October 17. Beginning of state campaign tour with speeches at West Nyack, Havestraw, Newburgh, Kingston, Cornwall, Saugerties, Catskill, Albany, Watervliet, Cohoes, Mechanicsville, Ballston, Saratoga, Fort Edward, Glens Falls. Accompanied on the campaign trial by unformed Rough Riders. One blew a cavalry charge on a bugle before each speech.

October 18. Speeches at Whitehall, Port Henry, West Port, Plattsburg, Rouses Point, Ogdensburg, Malone, Winthrop.

October 19. Speeches at Postdam, Canton, Gouverneur, Carthage, Lowville, Boonville. Evening speech in Brooklyn on State and National Issues.

October 20. NYC. Evening speeches at Durland's Riding Academy and Grand Central Opera House.

October 21. NYC. Evening speech at Poughkeepsie.

October 22. Speeches at Little Falls, Johnstown, Gloversville.

October 24. Speeches at Suffern, Hillburn, Monroe, Middletown, Port Jervis, Fremont, Hancock, Port Deposit, Susquehanna, Binghamton, Cortland, Oswego, Waverly, Elmira.

October 25. Speeches at Steuben, Allegany, Livingston, Corning, Addison, Cameron, Hornellsville, Canaseraga, Warsaw. Evening at Buffalo.

October 26. Speeches at Niagara Falls, Lockport, Tonawanda, Middleport, Palmyra, Medina, Fairport, Rochester on The Interests of Labor.

October 27. Speeches at Canandaigua, Phelps, Shortsville, Clifton Springs, Geneva, Seneca Falls, Auburn, Syracuse.

October 28. Speeches at Phoenix, Fulton, Oswego, Mexico, Pulaski, Richland, Watertown, Altmar, Williamstown, Rowe, Utica.

October 29. Speeches at Herkimer, Fonda, St. Johnsville, Canajoharie, Amsterdam, Schenectady. Evening speech at Cooper Union, NYC.

October 30. Oyster Bay. Evening speech at Harlem River Park, NYC.

October 31. NYC. Speech at Lenox Lyceum.

November 1. NYC. Speeches at Cosmopolitan Hall, Morrisania Hall, Cooper Union. Evening speech in Yonkers.

November 2. Long Island. Speaking tour including Freeport, Babylon, Patchogue, Southampton, Mineola, Flushing, Islip, Hicksville, Jamaica.

November 3. Speeches at Albany and Troy.

November 4. Brooklyn. Evening speech at Chickering Hall, NYC.

November 5. NYC. Meeting at Cooper Union. Speeches at Bowery, Sub-Treasury Building.

November 6. Oyster Bay.

November 7. Speeches at Hornellsville, Wellsville, Olean, Salamanca, Kennedy, Jamestown.

"I am not having an entirely pleasant campaign. I may win yet, and I am going in to do everything that can be done."

November 8. Elected governor of New York State (661,715 votes) with a plurality of 17,786 votes. His opponent was Democrat Augustus Van Wyck of Brooklyn (643,921 votes).

"At that time boss rule was at its very zenith...In each case I did my best to persuade Mr. Platt not to oppose me...It was only after I had exhausted all the resources of my patience that I would finally, if he still proved obstinate, tell him that I intended to make the fight anyhow."

December 31. Takes oath of office before Secretary of State John Palmer.


Publishes The Rough Riders. First installment appeared in Scribner's in January.

January 2. Inauguration in Assembly Chamber. The day was so cold that the brass instruments of the band escorting him to the State Capitol building froze into silence. Annual message to Legislature, dealing with taxation, the Erie Canal, commerce, labor, the National Guard, roads, civil service, state forests and the economy.

January 16. First weekly cabinet meeting.

January 17. Conference with state Civil Service Board.

January 19. Approval of Ellsworth-Allds Appropriation Act (Ch 1) authorizing funds for contingency expenses of members of the Legislature.

January 24. Albany. Appointment of Austen Fox as Special Counsel on canal frauds and Wallace Macfarlane as assistant. Conference with Lemuel Ely Quigg (chairman of the New York County Republican Committee), William H. Hotchkiss on Primary Law changes. Cabinet meeting.

February 2. Albany. Election as commander of Naval and Military Order of the Spanish-American War.

February 9. Albany. Meeting of trustees of State Soldiers' and Sailors' Home at Bath in afternoon.

February 12. Albany. Address at meeting of state YMCA.

February 13. NYC. Lincoln Day speech on America's Part of the World's Work at New York Republican Club.

February 15. Albany. Nomination of James Varnum as surrogate of New York County.

February 20. Albany. Hearing on Martha Place, convicted murderer.

February 22. Syracuse. Speech at Chamber of Commerce.

March 8. Albany. Appointment of Canal Investigation Commission.

March 10. NYC. Speech at West Side Republican Club on "Good Citizenship."

March 13. Albany. Refusal of compromise in state suits against Armour and Co. for violation of state butter laws.

March 14. Albany. Approval of an Amendment (Ch 74) to the Greater New York Charter, consolidating in a general fund all county funds in Greater New York (NYC), and authorizing the comptroller to borrow, in anticipation of municipal revenues, amounts not to exceed those revenues.

March 15. Albany. Approval of an Act (Ch 85) establishing $200,000 as the minimum capital for all fire or marine insurance companies organized thereafter.

March 20. Albany. Execution of Martha Place.

March 27. Albany. Approval of the Ambler Dairy Products Act (Ch 149) prohibiting the sale of artificially colored oleomargarine, and permitting the sale of adulterated dairy products only if so labeled. Message to Legislature suggesting a joint committee to investigate the franchise problem.

April 1. Albany. Approval of the Costello Anti-Sweatshop Act (Ch 191) providing for the inspection and regulation of the conditions of work in tenements. Approval of an Amendment (Ch 192) to the Labor Law, increasing the authority of factory inspectors and the number and scope of safety rules, and limiting the working hours of women and minors. Approval of an Act (Ch 208) providing funds for repairs and improvements to the canal system. Approval of an Act (Ch 218) appropriating funds collected from racing associations for the promotion of agriculture.

April 3. Albany. Approval of an Act (Ch 226) facilitating the removal of grade crossings by municipal corporations. Hearing on the Ahearn School Bill.

April 4. Albany. Approval of an Amendment (Ch 237) to the Municipal Corporation Act prohibiting any elected official of a city, during his term of office, from holding any appointive position, the salary for which is paid by that city. Compromise Ahearn School Bill sent to the Assembly.

April 10. Chicago. Speeches at University of Chicago, Harvard Club. Speech at Appomattox Day meeting at Hamilton Club on The Strenuous Life.

April 12. Albany. Approval of the Raines-Mazet Election Violations Act (Ch 302)

authorizing the governor, through the attorney general, to initiate investigations of suspected violations of election laws.

April 13. Albany. Approval of an Amendment (Ch 303) to the Beet Sugar Act authorizing a bounty for manufacturers of sugar made exclusively of beets grown in New York State.

April 17. Albany. Approval of an Act (Ch 343) prohibiting the sale as pure fruit juice of any juice to which an unwholesome substance has been added. Statement favoring limitation of rapid transit franchises.

April 18. Albany. Approval of an Act (Ch 360) permitting the inspection by a justice or agent of the Supreme Court of the books and vouchers of all membership corporations. Hearing on the Rapid Transit Bill.

April 19. Albany. Approval of the Civil Service Act (Ch 370) reorganizing and redefining state and local civil service systems. Approval of the Ford-Fallows Amsterdam Avenue Act (Ch 371). Approval of an Amendment (Ch 375) to the Labor Law prohibiting the employment of women or minors in any factory using emery polishing or buffing wheels.

April 21. Albany. Approval of the Krum Savings Bank Securities Act (Ch 386) defining the type of bonds in which savings banks could invest, and restricting the percentage of investments in railroad and real estate mortgage bonds. Approval of an Amendment (Ch 398) to the Liquor Law revising the procedure by which communities could petition and ballot for local option.

April 22. Albany. Message to Legislature for swift action on the Rapid Transit Bill.

April 24. Albany. Board of Regents meeting. Meeting with labor delegation on the Rapid Transit Bill.

April 25. Albany. Approval of the Ahearn School Act (Ch 417). Hearing of "World Committee" on the Ford Franchise Tax Bill.

April 26. Albany. Evening in NYC for Commerce Commission dinner for Sen. Frye.

April 27. Albany. Approval of an Amendment (Ch 462) to the Poor Law defining the procedures for the distribution of relief to Civil War veterans by GAR (Grand Army of the Republic, a/k/a the Union Army) commanders.

April 28. Albany. Approval of the Slater General Carriage Act (Ch 470) incorporating the General Carriage Co., with permission to establish hack or coach service in any city of the first class, and setting maximum rates for such service. Approval of the Raines Election Act (Ch 499), introduced at the request of Supt. John McCullagh, providing for additional election deputies and establishing more stringent procedures for the registration of voters in lodging houses. Adjournment of the Legislature.

April 29. Near Albany. Trip through Rensselaer County with family.

May 2. Albany. Approval of an Amendment (Ch 473) to the Primary Election Law, expanding and improving the Primary Law of the previous year written by Elihu Root. Approval of an Act (Ch 489) appropriating funds for additional instruction in natural history and geography in the public schools. Approval of an Act (Ch 494) appropriating funds for the continuance of investigations by the Commerce Commission.

May 4. Albany. Approval of an Act (Ch 518) forbidding the manufacture or sale of poisonous coloring matter or food containing it. Approval of an Act (Ch 519) authorizing the construction of a canal and locks near Cohoes to connect the Erie and Champlain canals. Approval of an Act (Ch 521) extending the forest preserve in Delaware, Greene, Sullivan and Ulster counties.

May 5. Albany. Approval of the Raines-Mazet Police Act (Ch 529) forbidding members of police forces from attempting to influence political opinion, contributing to or soliciting money for any political funds, and hiring or promoting within the force for political purposes. Approval of an Amendment (Ch 530) to the Penal Code redefining punishments for corrupt political practices. Approval of an Amendment (Ch 539) to the Railroad Law empowering the governor to appoint conductors or brakemen on passenger trains as special policemen with authority to preserve order and make arrests on railroad property; similar arrangement for steamboat policemen.

May 6. Near Albany. Helderbergs trip.

May 11. Albany. Approval of an Amendment (Ch 564) to the Greater New York Charter prohibiting the granting or renewal of franchises for the use of streets for more than 25 years, except for tunnel franchises, which might be granted for 50 years. This act also required that every grant provide for efficient service at reasonable rates, maintenance of property, and method of determining valuations. The provisions relative to franchises for tunnel corporations were designed to facilitate the plans for the proposed Atlantic Avenue tunnel. Hearing on the Ford Franchise Tax Bill.

May 12. Albany. Approval of the Sabine Eight-Hour Act (Ch 567) improving the enforcement provisions of the law establishing an eight-hour day for state employees at prevailing local wages. Approval of an Act (Ch 581) making comprehensive changes in the government of cities of the second class.

May 15. Albany. Conference with Benjamin B. Odell Jr. (chairman of the Republican State Committee) on Ford Franchise Tax Bill. Evening speech in Buffalo at Independent Club on Property in the State.

May 17. Albany. Extra session of the Legislature called.

May 20. NYC. En route to Adirondacks.

May 21. Adirondacks.

May 22. Albany. Opening of special session of the Legislature.

May 23. Albany. Approval of an Amendment (Ch 630) to the Election Laws designating the number, qualifications, duties, and methods of appointment of election officers, with special reference to New York City. Approval of an Act (Ch 637) permitting cities of the first class to establish, outside of their own corporate limits, hospitals for the treatment of tuberculosis.

May 25. Albany. Approval of an Amendment (Ch 655) to the Penal Code prohibiting the possession of slot machines. Approval of an Act (Ch 690) prohibiting contracts, agreements or combinations creating a monopoly or in restraint of trade in the manufacture or sale of commodities of common use.

May 26. Albany. Approval of the Ford Franchise Tax Act (Ch 712). Approval of an Act (Ch 727) providing for the punishment of pools, trusts or conspiracies to control rates of transportation. Approval of an Amendment (Ch 729) to the Fisheries Law forbidding the pollution of the waters used by state fish hatcheries.

May 30. NYC. Decoration Day parade. Address to Grand Army of the Republic (GAR).

June 2. NYC. Discussion of appointments to Tax Commission with Sen. Thomas Collier Platt, Benjamin B. Odell Jr. at breakfast. Night at Cortlandt Park en route to Peekskill camp with Avery D. Andrews and Treadwell.

June 3. En route to Peekskill camp with stops at Nelson Park, Sing Sing.

June 4. Peekskill camp.

June 5. West Point.

June 7. NYC. Honorary LL.D. at Columbia University.

June 8. Albany. Approval of new Civil Service Commission rules.

June 9. Rochester. Unveiling of Frederick Douglass monument.

June 20. Ithaca. Speech at Cornell graduation.

June 24-25. Las Vegas, Nev. Rough Riders reunion.

July 4. Oyster Bay. Independence Day speech.

July 8. Washington, D.C., conference at White House on appointment of Secretary of War and Roosevelt's advocacy of Gen. Francis V. Greene for command in the Philippines.

July 20. Oyster Bay. Fox-Macfarlane canal investigation report (Austen G. Fox and Wallace Macfarlane) made public.

July 23-24. Manhattan Beach. Visit to quarantine station on Barren Island on 24th.

August 3. Asbury Park, N.J. Speech on "Practical Politics and Decent Politics" at theological school. Night at Norwood Park, N.J., with Vice President Garret A. Hobart.

August 15. NYC. Speeches at Firemens Convention in Yonkers. Dinner with Sen. Thomas C. Platt, Benjamin B. Odell Jr., Lucius N. Littauer. Departure for Buffalo in evening.

August 16. Arrival at Olcott, via Buffalo. Departure for Niagara County Fair.

August 17. Niagara Falls.

August 18. Silver Lake.

August 19. Chautauqua.

August 20. Plattsburg. Visit with President McKinley and Vice President Hobart.

August 30. Hornellsville. Speech at fair. Night at Olean.

August 31. Departure for Watertown, with speech on This Nation at Little Valley and a train stop at Buffalo.

September 1. Watertown. Speech on Canals and their Management at Jefferson County Fair. Departure for NYC.

September 5. Ogdensburg. Speech at Oswegatchie County Fair.

September 6. Johnstown. Speech at Fulton County Fair. Night at Utica.

September 7. Speeches at Norwich and Delhi County Fairs. Night at Syracuse.

September 8. Syracuse. Departure for Oyster Bay.

September 12. Middletown. Speech at Orange County Fair.

September 13. Walton. Speech at Delaware County Fair.

September 14. Lowville. Speech at Lewis County Fair. Night at Utica.

September 15. Lyons. Speech at Wayne County Fair.

September 16. NYC. Breakfast with William J. Youngs. Speech to Brooklyn veterans.

September 19. Riverhead. Speech at Suffolk County Fair.

September 21. Arrival at Otsego City, after stop in Albany. Speech at Cooperstown Fair.

September 22. Arrival at Utica after speech at Richfield.

September 27. Mineola. Speech at Queens County Fair. Return to Oyster Bay.

September 28. NYC. Official call on Adm. Dewey on Olympia and visit to Indiana and New Hampshire with Adm. Sampson.

September 29-30. NYC. Naval parades.

October. "Admiral Dewey" published in McClure's.

October 1. Oyster Bay. Entertainment for Governor General Minto of Canada.

October 3. Washington. Dinner for Admiral Dewey.

October 5. Binghamton.

October 6. Speeches at Elmira, Waverly.

October 19. NYC. Speech endorsing Mazet Anti-Tammany Fusion ticket.

October 24. NYC. Conference with Sen. Thomas C. Platt, Benjamin B. Odell Jr. Order for extraordinary term of Supreme Court to sit on law violation by Tammany. Departure for Baltimore, back in Albany by Oct. 28.

November 1. Oyster Bay. "Military Preparedness and Unpreparedness" published in the Century.

November 15. Albany. Conference with Nevada N. Stranahan, Frank W. Higgins, Jotham P. Allds on special tax commission.

November 21. NYC. Hearing on Gardiner charges. Conference with Lemuel E. Quigg, Thomas Platt, Benjamin Odell, Thomas R. Slicer, John C. Davies. Speech at Chamber of Commerce.

November 27. Albany. Appointment of Attorney Ansley Wilcox to hear Asa B. Gardiner charges. Conference with Education Commission.

November 29. Albany. Hearing on appointment to Supreme Court.

December 4. Albany. Conference with Jeremiah W. Jenks, professor, E.R.A. Seligman, Nevada N. Stranahan on taxation and trusts.

December 8. NYC. Conference with Canal commissioners.

December 9. NYC. Breakfast with Sen. Thomas Platt, Benjamin Odell Jr. and discussion of appointment of Charter Revision Commissioners and vice-presidential nomination.

December 12. Albany. Conference with Francis J. Henricks as possible successor to Louis F. Payn.

December 19. Albany. Conference with Mazet.

December 23. NYC. Breakfast with Sen. Thomas Platt, Benjamin Odell Jr. and discussion of removal of Louis F. Payn.


Publishes Oliver Cromwell serially in Scribner's, January to June.

Publishes The Strenuous Life.

January. "Fellow-Feeling as a Political Factor" published in the Century.

January 1. Annual Reception.

January 3. Annual message to the Legislature. "The subject of forest preservation is of the utmost importance to the state. The Adirondacks and Catskills should be great parks kept in perpetuity for the benefit and enjoyment of our people."

January 4. Albany. Publication of Regents Commission Report.

January 11. Albany. Afternoon at Schenectady for funeral of Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Dana Greene. Evening in NYC for meeting with Avery D. Andrews at Fifth Avenue Hotel.

January 17. Albany. Senators' conference on successor to Louis F. Payn.

January 20. NYC. Breakfast with Thomas Collier Platt and Benjamin B. Odell Jr. First statement by Platt in support of Roosevelt for vice-presidency. Visit with Avery Andrews at 422 Madison Ave. Speeches at Union League Club dinner and at Boone and Crockett Banquet.

January 23. Albany. Conference with Charles P. Bacon on State Trust Co.

January 25. Albany. Report of New York Commerce Commission sent to Legislature.

January 26. Albany. First mention of "The Big Stick" in a letter to Henry L. Sprague.
"I have always been fond of the West African proverb: 'Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far. '"

January 30. Albany. Conference on Regents Bill.

January 31. Albany. Senate confirmation of Francis J. Henricks as superintendent of Insurance.

February 2. Albany. Conference with Jeremiah Jenks, Frank Higgins, Nevada Stranahan and S. Fred Nixon on trusts. Conference with Seth Low on Regents Bill.

February 6. NYC. Conference with Benjamin Odell Jr. on vice-presidency at Fifth Avenue Hotel. Speech at New York State Bankers Association. Speech at Carnegie Hall favoring an increase in the armed forces.

February 8. Albany. Approval of the Davis Rapid Transit Act (Ch 7) authorizing the municipal assembly of Greater New York to grant franchises for the rapid transit lines.

February 11. NYC. Conference in Yonkers with Frederick W. Holls and Albert Shaw on Regents Bill. Announcement of opposition to Nicaraguan canal.

February 12. Albany. Press statement that vice-presidential nomination would not be accepted.

February 15. Albany. Approval of the Ahearn School Act (Ch 17) providing for the payment of arrears of salaries to teachers and other employees of the NYC school system.

February 17. Albany. Conference with Limburger, counsel for Ramapo Co.

February 19. Albany. Approval of an Act (Ch 20) for the protection of the forest, fish and game of the state, revising Chapter 31 of the General Laws. This comprehensive measure was the culmination of Roosevelt's efforts, while governor, to improve the state's conservation program. Conference on canal appropriation with Francis Vinton Greene and Henry Wayland Hill.

February 20. Albany. Conference with Benjamin Odell on Fish and Game and Forest Preserve Boards. Speech at Foreign Missionary Conference.

February 22. Buffalo. Speech to DAR. Speech at Saturn Club dinner on "Washington and the Ideal and Practicable in Politics."

February 26. Albany. Canal Commission's bills sent to Legislature.

February 28. Newburgh. Lunch with Benjamin Odell. Speech at Trinity Episcopal Church on "Good Citizenship."

March 2. Approval of an Amendment (Ch 70) to the Penal Code forbidding the solicitation of money from a candidate for an elective office as a consideration for the support of a newspaper or other publications.

March 14. Albany. Approval of an Amendment (Ch 128) to the Stock Corporation Law providing that the stock books of all corporations contain full information and be for inspection by stockholders and creditors, and providing further that the stock books should be presumptive evidence of their contents.

March 17. Albany. "The Best and The Good" published in the Churchman. Speech to the Friendly Sons of St. Patrick.

March 21. Albany. Approval of the Davis Palisades Act (Ch 170) providing land, funds and a commission of management for an interstate park along the Palisades.

March 22. Albany. Approval of an Act (Ch 183) providing for the compulsory education of Indian children on the Allegany and Cattaraugus reservations.

March 26. Albany. Evening in NYC for review of Military Athletic League at Madison Square Garden.

March 31. Albany. "Character and Success" published in the Outlook.

April 2. Albany. Approval of an Act (Ch 270) prohibiting commercial prize fighting.

April 4. Albany. Approval of the Tenement House Commission Act (Ch 279) empowering the governor to appoint an unpaid commission to examine the tenement house question in cities of the first class and report to the next Legislature a code of tenement-house laws.

Speech at Assembly meeting in memory of Gov. Rosewell P. Flower.

April 5. Albany. Approval of the Fallows Anti-Ramapo Act (Ch 283), passed without the acceptance of NYC, forbidding the commissioner of water supply to make contracts for water without the approval of the Board of Public Improvements and the Board of Estimate, and separate written approval of both the mayor and the comptroller of NYC.

April 6. Albany. Approval of an Amendment (Ch 310) to the Banking Law prohibiting banks or private individuals from receiving more than 6 percent interest per annum on loans. Approval of the General City Act (Ch 327) constituting Chapter 22 of the General Laws. Adjournment of the Legislature.

April 9. Albany. Approval of an Act (Ch 344) appropriating funds to continue the promotion of sugar beet culture, one of several such acts passed during Roosevelt's governorship.

April 11. Albany. Approval of an Act (Ch 369) establishing the New York State hospital for the care of crippled and deformed children.

April 12. Albany. Approval of an Act (Ch 411) appropriating funds and directing the state engineer and surveyor to make surveys and estimates for the improvement of the Erie, Champlain and Oswego canals.

April 13. Albany. Hearing on Compromise School Bill. Conference with Timothy E. Ellsworth and S. Fred Nixon.

April 14. Albany. Approval of an Act (Ch 452) chartering the New York State Medical Association. Approval of an Act (Ch 453) regulating the hours and conditions of work of pharmacists and drug clerks.

April 16. Albany. Approval of an Act (Ch 465), passed without the acceptance of NYC, authorizing the governor to appoint a commission to inquire into the charter and government of the City of New York and suggest legislation thereon.

April 17. Albany. Selection as delegate-at-large with Thomas Platt, Chauncey M. Depew (president of the New York Central Railroad) and Benjamin Odell by Republican State Convention in NYC.

April 18. Albany. Approval of an Act (Ch 492) providing that no person shall be excluded from any public school in the State of New York on account of race or color, and repealing a previous authorization for the establishment of separate schools for colored children at the discretion of local authorities.

April 19. Albany. Approval of an Amendment (Ch 533) to the Labor Law providing that employers should furnish and permit the reasonable use of seats for waitresses and women factory workers.

April 21. Albany. Hearing on Remsen bills. Evening in NYC at Ecumenical Mission Conference.

April 23. Albany. Approval of an Act (Ch 586) providing that no cloth should be labeled or sold as linen unless it contained at least one fold with a flax thread in both warp and filling.

April 24. Albany. Approval of an Act (Ch 649), accepted by NYC, empowering the Board of Estimate of NYC to take the necessary steps for the repair and extension of the county courthouse, subject to enumerated restrictions relative to the letting, awarding and execution of contracts, and permitting the sale of municipal bonds to finance this work.

April 25. Albany. Approval of the Goodsell Fifth Avenue State Act (Ch 657). Approval of the Ellsberg Transfer Tax Appraisers Act (Ch 658). Approval of an Amendment (Ch 667) to the Public Health Law revising, in large part, the regulations pertaining to the licensing, operation and inspection of pharmacies. Approval of the Ellsworth Amendment (Ch 675) to the Civil Service Law giving the state Civil Service Commission, under certain conditions, the power to remove municipal Civil Service commissioners and appoint their successors. Announcement of appointments to NYC Charter Revision Commission. Evening departure for Chicago.

May. "The American Boy" published in St. Nicholas magazine.

May 2. Albany. Approval of the Hallock Bird Protection Act (Ch 741).

May 3. Albany. Approval of the Davis School Act (Ch 751), without the acceptance of NYC.

May 4. Albany. Approval of the Ellsberg City College Act (Ch 757). Approval of the Remsen Bedford Avenue Act (Ch 764), without the acceptance of NYC, providing for the opening and improvement of Bedford Avenue in Brooklyn ? of the expense to be met from general city taxes. Dinner for NYC Charter Commission.

May 5. Albany. Approval of the Platt Act (Ch 769) exempting the Bath Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Home from the management of the state Board of Charities.

May 12. Washington, D.C. "The Eighth and Ninth Commandments in Politics" published in the Outlook.

May 25. Albany. Evening speech in NYC on Municipal Finance at dinner of Merchants' Association for William King.

May 30. NYC. Memorial Day parade.

May 31. NYC. Tour of sweatshops with Jacob Riis and James B. Reynolds. Rough Riders' dinner at Union League Club.

June 1. NYC. Tour of sweatshops with Jacob Riis.

June 5. Albany. Review of ice trust case with Attorney General John C. Davies.

June 12. Albany. Interview on ice trust case. Afternoon speech on "Promise and Performance" at Rochester University, Rochester.

June 13. Rochester. Dedication of Soldiers' Monument at Caledonia. Return to Rochester.

June 21. Philadelphia, Pa. Nominated for vice president at the Republican National Convention as running mate to President William McKinley. Lunch with Francis V. Greene. Speech.

June 25. Oyster Bay. Evening in NYC for meeting of American Association for the Advancement of Science.

June 28. Oyster Bay. Lunch with Seth Low. Visit with Wilcox. Dinner with Francis V. Greene and F. Norton Goddard.

July 12. Oyster Bay. Formal notification of vice-presidential nomination by committee headed by Sen. Wolcott.

July 13. Oyster Bay. Speech at Mineola, at cornerstone laying for first courthouse in Nassau County.

July 28. Oyster Bay. "Promise and Performance" published in the Outlook.

July 31. Oyster Bay. Visit to Brooklyn Naval Reserve camp at Centre Island.

August 13. NYC. Conference with John C. Davies on charges against Robert W. Van Wyck. Conference with Marcus A. Hanna on campaign tour itinerary. Lunch with Benjamin Odell. Return to Oyster Bay.

September 1. Albany. Hearing on Asa Bird Gardiner case.

September 3. Chicago, Ill. Labor Day parade. Speech on "The Labor Question."

September 5. Saratoga, N.Y. Speech at Republican state convention.

October. "Civic Helpfulness" published in the Century.

October 22. Speeches at Newburgh, Kingston.

October 23. Train stops and speeches in New York State.

October 24. Speech at Utica.

October 25. Speeches at Auburn and Syracuse.

October 26. Speeches at Little Falls and Schenectady. Dinner in NYC at Fifth Avenue Hotel and speech at Madison Square Garden rally.

October 27. Train stops in New York State and evening speech at Binghamton.

October 28. Binghamton.

October 29. Speeches at Cortland, Ithaca, Elmira.

October 30. Speeches at Geneva and Rochester.

October 31. Speeches at Buffalo, Niagara Falls.

November 1. Speeches at Batavia, Jamestown.

November 2. Speech at Owego.

November 6. Oyster Bay. Elected vice president. The McKinley-Roosevelt ticket received 7,219,530 votes to 6,358,071 for Democrats William Jennings Bryan and Adlai E. Stevenson.

"If I have been put on the shelf, my enemies will find that I can make it a cheerful place of abode."

November 13. Albany. Conference with John Davies on ice trust case. Afternoon speech at Syracuse.

November 15. Albany. Conference with Hayes, World attorney.

November 20. Albany. Statement that the telegram published by the World differed from the original.

December 14. NYC. Speech at National Civil Service Reform Association dinner.

December 15. Albany. NYC in afternoon for cornerstone laying of Soldiers' Monument on Riverside Drive.

December 20. Albany. Hearing on Dr. Peter M. Wise of state Lunacy Commission. Removal of Wise for malfeasance of office.

December 22. Albany. Conferences with Attorney General John Henry Hammond and Asa B. Gardiner. Removal of Gardiner from office and appointment of Eugene A. Philbin.

December 29. NYC. Speech at opening of Cornell Medical College. Dinner for J.P. Morgan at Union League Club.

December 30. NYC. Speech at YMCA on Christian Citizenship.

December 31. Oyster Bay. Evening in Albany for farewell dinner given by Timothy L. Woodruff.


March 4. Takes office as vice president.

September 14. President McKinley dies as a result of an assassin's bullet; he was shot on Sept. 6 while attending the Pan American Exposition in Buffalo. TR is summoned from Mount Tahawus in the Adirondacks. At age 42, Roosevelt becomes the 26th president of the United States and is sworn into office at about 3:15 p.m. at the Ansley Wilcox Mansion, 641 Delaware Ave., Buffalo, the youngest man ever to become president (John F. Kennedy was the youngest man ever elected to that office at the age of 43).

"The course I followed, of regarding the Executive as subject only to the people, and, under the Constitution, bound to serve the people affirmatively in cases where the Constitution does not explicitly forbid him to render the service, was substantially the course followed by both Andrew Jackson and Abraham Lincoln."


February 19. Orders antitrust suit under Sherman Act to dissolve Northern Securities Co., first of 45 antitrust suits.

May 22. Crater Lake National Park in Oregon established. Other National Parks established by TR are Wind Cave National Park (South Dakota, 1903); Sullys Hill (North Dakota, 1904); Platt National Park (Oklahoma, 1906); and Mesa Verde National Park (Colorado, 1906).

June 17. Newlands Reclamation Act signed, leading to the first 21 federal irrigation projects, including Theodore Roosevelt Dam in Arizona.

June 28. Isthmian Canal Act.

October 15. Roosevelt settles the Anthracite Coal Strike.

December 31. Roosevelt settles the Venezuelan Affair.


February 14. Department of Commerce and Labor established.

February 19. Elkins Anti-Rebate Act for railroads signed.

March 14. Proclaimed Pelican Island, Fla., as first Federal Bird Sanctuary; Roosevelt proclaimed a total of 51 bird sanctuaries.

March. Roosevelt settles the Alaskan boundary dispute.

November 13. Recognition of the Republic of Panama after Panama's secession from Colombia.

November 18. Treaty signed with Panama for building of Panama Canal, which was completed in 1914.

"Panama declared itself independent and wanted to complete the Panama Canal, and opened negotiations with us. I had two courses open. I might have taken the matter under advisement and put it before the Senate, in which case we should have had a number of most able speeches on the subject, and they would have been going on now, and the Panama Canal would be in the dim future yet. We would have had a half a century of discussion afterward."

December 17. Reciprocity Treaty with Cuba.


November 8. Elected president over Alton B. Parker, the Democratic nominee, by the widest popular margin ever recorded.

"I am glad to be elected president in my own right."

December 6. Issued "Roosevelt Corollary" to Monroe Doctrine in Annual Message to Congress.


February 1. National Forest Service established.

March 4. Inaugurated as president.

March 17. Acting as stand-in for his deceased brother, Elliott, he gives away his niece, Eleanor Roosevelt, at her wedding to her fifth cousin once removed, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, in New York City.

June 2. Wichita Forest, Okla., made first Federal Game Preserve. Other federal game preserves established by TR are the Grand Canyon (1908); Fire Island, Ala., (1909); and National Bison Range, Mont., (1909).

September 5. Signing of the Treaty of Portsmouth ending the Russo-Japanese War.

Publishes Outdoor Pastimes of an American Hunter.


January. Algeciras Conference opened as TR mediated dispute between France and Germany over Morocco.

February 17. Marriage of his daughter, Alice, to Ohio Congressman Nicholas Longworth in a magnificent White House ceremony.

June 8. Antiquities or National Monuments Act signed, by which TR established the first 18 "National Monuments," including Devils Tower (1906); Muir Woods (1908); Grand Canyon (1908); and Mount Olympus (1909).

June 11. Forest Homestead Act.

June 29. Hepburn Rate Act signed, giving the Interstate Commerce Commission the power to regulate railroad rates.

June 30. Signed both the Pure Food and Drug Act and the federal meat inspection law.

November 8-16. President and Mrs. Roosevelt went to Panama to inspect building of the canal, the first time a president left the U.S. while in office.

December 10. Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his work in the Treaty of Portsmouth of 1905, becoming the first American to win a Nobel Prize in any of the six categories.


December 16. American Great White Fleet starts around the world. It will be the first circumnavigation of the globe by a national naval force.


May 13-15. First Conference of Governors met at the White House to consider problems of conservation.

June 8. Appointed a National Conservation Commission to prepare the first inventory of natural resources.


February 18. North American Conservation Conference convened at the White House.

February 22. Return of the Great White Fleet.

"In my own judgement the most important service that I rendered to peace was the voyage of the battle-fleet around the world."

March 4. Roosevelt retires from the presidency, being succeeded by William Howard Taft.

March 23. Sails for Africa.

Hunting in Central Africa with his son, Kermit, to gather specimens for the Smithsonian Institution.


March 14. Arrives at Khartoum.

April 23. Delivers "Citizenship in a Republic" speech at the Sorbonne, Paris. "The Man in the Arena" quote from that speech becomes world-famous.

"It is not the critic who counts: not the man who points out how the strong man stumbles or where the doer of deeds could have done better. The credit belongs to the man who is actually in the arena, whose face is marred by dust and sweat and blood, who strives valiantly, who errs and comes up short again and again, because there is no effort without error or shortcoming, but who knows the great enthusiasms, the great devotions, who spends himself for a worthy cause; who, at the best, knows, in the end, the triumph of high achievement, and who, at the worst, if he fails, at least he fails while daring greatly, so that his place shall never be with those cold and timid souls who knew neither victory nor defeat."

May 20. Serves as special ambassador to England at the funeral of King Edward VII.

May 31. Address at the Guildhall, London.

June 18. Returns to New York.

Publishes African Game Trails.

Publishes The New Nationalism. Delivered the speech "The New Nationalism" at Osawtomie, Kan., on Aug. 31.


Becomes an editor for Outlook magazine.


February 21. Announces candidacy for the Republican nomination for president.

"My hat is in the ring."

Publishes Realizable Ideals.

June 18-22. Defeated at the Republican National Convention in Chicago, even though he had won all but one primary and caucus. Incumbent William Howard Taft is nominated. Roosevelt supporters bolted, charging "theft" of nomination.

August 5-7. Convention of new National Progressive ("Bull Moose") Party held in Chicago. Adopted reform platform and nominated TR for president and Governor Hiram W. Johnson of California for vice president.

"This country will not be a good place for any of us to live in if it is not a reasonably good place for all of us to live in."..."Laws are enacted for the benefit of the whole people, and must not be construed as permitting discrimination against some of the people."

October 14. Shot in the chest at Milwaukee by would-be assassin John Schrank. Delivers a 90-minute speech before seeking medical attention.

"I did not care a rap for being shot. It is a trade risk, which every prominent public man ought to accept as a matter of course."

November 5. Defeated by Democrat Woodrow Wilson. Roosevelt received the largest percentage of votes of any third party candidate.


Publishes Theodore Roosevelt - An Autobiography.

Publishes History as Literature and Other Essays.

May 26-31. Trial of Roosevelt vs. Newett; TR's successful libel suit against the Michigan editor who called him a drunk.

October 4. Sailed for South America for lecture tour and jungle expedition.


February 27-April 27. Roosevelt-Rondon Expedition, sponsored by the American Museum of Natural History and the Brazilian government, explored Brazil's River of Doubt, now named Rio Roosevelt or Rio Teodoro. Roosevelt nearly dies on the trip.

"I had to go. It was my last chance to be a boy."

Publishes Through the Brazilian Wilderness.

Publishes, in collaboration with Edmund Heller, Life Histories of African Game Animals.


January 1. Publishes America and the World War.

"The kind of 'neutrality' which seeks to preserve 'peace' by timidly refusing to live up to our plighted word and to denounce and take action against such wrong as that committed in the case of Belgium, is unworthy of an honorable and powerful people. Dante reserved a special place of infamy in the Inferno for those base angels who dared side neither with evil or with good. Peace is ardently to be desired, but only as the handmaiden of righteousness. There can be no such peace until well-behaved, highly civilized small nations are protected from oppression and subjugation."

April 19-May 22. Libel suit, Barnes vs. Roosevelt, against Republican leader William Barnes Jr., decided in favor of Roosevelt.


Publishes A Booklover's Holidays in the Open.

Publishes Fear God and Take Your Own Part.

June 7-10. Republican and Progressive national conventions met in Chicago, at same time in different halls, in an effort at a joint nomination.

June 10. Nominated by the Progressive Party for the presidency; refused the nomination and gave his support to the Republican candidate, Charles Evans Hughes.

"We have room for but one loyalty, loyalty to the United States. We have room for but one language, the language of the Declaration of Independence and the Gettysburg Speech."


February. Requests permission of President Woodrow Wilson to raise and equip a Division of volunteers for service in France.

"Peace is not the end. Righteousness is the end."..."If I must choose between righteousness and peace I choose righteousness."

May 19. Request finally refused.

All four of his sons enlist. His daughter, Ethel, serves as a Red Cross nurse at the American Ambulance Hospital in Paris, accompanying her husband, surgeon Dr. Richard Derby.

Publishes Foes of Our Own Household.


July 14. Death of youngest son, Quentin Roosevelt, in France when he was shot down as a fighter pilot.

July. Roosevelt refuses Republican nomination for governor of New York.

Publishes The Great Adventure.

"Our present business is to fight, and continue fighting until Germany is brought to her knees. Our next business will be to help guarantee the peace of justice for the world at large, and to set in order the affairs of our own household."


January 6. Death of Roosevelt at Sagamore Hill resulting from an arterial blood clot.

"All of us who give service, and stand ready for sacrifice, are torch-bearers. We run with the torches until we fall, content if we can then pass them to the hands of some other runners...Both life and death are parts of the same Great Adventure."


NYS Executive Department - 1900

Theodore Roosevelt

Lieutenant Governor:
Timothy L. Woodruff

Attorney General:
John C. Davies

William Morgan

John P. Jaeckel

State Engineer and Surveyor:
Edward A. Bond

Secretary of State:
John McDonough

Superintendent of Public Works:
John N. Partridge

Board of Railroad Commissioners:
Frank M. Baker
Ashley W. Cole
George W. Dunn

Bureau of Labor Statistics:
John McMackin

State Board of Charities:
William R. Stewart, President

Fisheries, Game and Forest Commission:
Barnet H. Davis, President

Commission in Lunacy:
Peter M. Wise, M.D.
William L. Parkhurst
William Church Osborne

Superintendent of Insurance:
Francis Hendricks

Tax Commissioners:
George E. Priest
Lester F. Stearns
J. Edgar Leaycraft

Board of Mediation and Arbitration:
W.H. Webster
James M. Gilbert
Francis B. Delahanty

Civil Service Commission:
Silas W. Burt

George Lord

William M. Collier

Commissioner of Agriculture:
Charles A. Wieting

Superintendent of Prisons:
C.V. Collins

Superintendent of Banks:
Frederick D. Kilburn

Commissioner of Excise:
Henry H. Lyman

Factory Inspector:
John Williams

Board of Health:
S. Case Jones, M.D.
Daniel Lewis, M.D.
Owen Cassidy

Inspector of Gas Meters:
Jastrow Alexander

Commission of Prisons:
Lispenard Steward, President

Superintendent of Public Instruction:
Charles R. Skinner

Mayor of New York City:
Robert A. Van Wyck


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